Want to know more about the directory structure that Linux uses? Like, why it’s that way, and how it works? Here’s an article that might be worth starting with: Linux Directory Structure.
But definitely consider that a start, because the Linux directory structure can vary slightly (or more) from distribution to distribution. So read the article–and read the comments! Especially the suggestion to Google "Linux File Hierarchy Binh Nguyen", for more comprehensive documentation of the directory structure.
And you can check out my previous post, Ever Wondered about the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy? on the same topic, more or less.